The Law of Definite Proportions vs. The Law of Multiple Proportions

The Law of Definite Proportions (or Proust's Law) states that in a single chemical compound (such as H2O or CO) the ratio of it's component elements is a fixed whole number ratio. For example, in water (H2O) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1 (sometimes written 2/1). In Carbon monoxide (CO) the ratio of carbon to oxygen is 1:1 (or 1/1). Always remember that the law of definite proportions concerns the ratio of elements in a single compound. Here is the example of water visualized.

Law of Definite Proportions Example

This also applies if you use multiples of your original ratio. For example, you could double water's 2:1 hydrogen to carbon ratio. This result's in a 4:2 ratio with two water molecules produced as the end result. This is visualized below.

Law of Definite Proportions Second Example w/ Water

The Law of multiple proportions applies when two or more elements/compounds have multiple ways of combining into different compounds. This is different from the law of definite proportions where we looked at the ratio of elements in a single product, here we are looking at multiple products, as the name of the law implies. When you have a fixed amount of one element (such as carbon (C) or Nitrogen (N)) and you combine it with differing amounts of another element (such as oxygen (O)) the differing amounts of differing amounts of variable element can be expressed as a ratio of whole numbers. For example, the combination of carbon + oxygen forms two simple compounds which illustrate this point. The first is carbon monoxide (CO) and the second is carbon dioxide (CO2). If you start with a fixed 100 grams of carbon and combine it with 133 grams of oxygen, CO will be formed. If on the other hand you combine it with 266 grams of oxygen, CO2 is formed. The ratio of the different amounts of oxygen (266/133) simplifies to a whole number ratio of 2/1. This is the effect which the law of multiple proportions highlights. Another example using nitrogen monoxide and dioxide is illustrated in the example below.

Law of Multiple Proportions Example
 
  As we can see the ratio of the different oxygen levels (2.286/1.143) is a simple whole number ratio of 2:1 as the law of multiple proportions would have told us.

Thank you for reading! Hopefully you understand the difference between the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions!

Sources:
http://isite.lps.org/sputnam/chem_notes/UnitIIatoms/DefiniteProportions.html
http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Early-Ideas-about-Matter/49http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Early-Ideas-about-Matter/49
https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Atomic_Theory/Dalton's_Atomic_Theory/Law_of_Multiple_Proportions
http://study.com/academy/lesson/law-of-multiple-proportions-definition-examples.html

20 comments:

  1. This helped so much. I had watched many videos, but this helped the most.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks for the detailed explanation. Can you please help in understanding how the law of multiple proportions proved the existence of atoms?

    ReplyDelete
  3. God thanks so much you truly made my brain happy

    ReplyDelete
  4. I really loved the explanations...I've been looking for this clear differentiation of the two of them because I sometimes confuse them...thanks

    ReplyDelete
  5. This has cleared my all mystery
    Very clear understanding of concept 👍
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  6. i am enjoying every bit of it. it is a good site, as well as the stock is well-chosen. thank you.. Indian e visa photo, photo requirements for Indian visa, you can read online India e visa photo requirements through the India evisa website.

    ReplyDelete
  7. This was really an interesting topic and I kinda agree with what you have mentioned here!lawyer in Dubai

    ReplyDelete
  8. The main countries that civil law is in today are China, Japan, Germany, France, and Spain. Each of these countries has a written constitution. https://www.bestdivorcelawyerdelhi.in/

    ReplyDelete
  9. Hi there! You fill first your Indian business visa application form online and pay India business visa cost after filling the form.

    ReplyDelete
  10. This is extremely enlightening and fascinating for me. Much obliged to you for such a great post about Couples therapist and for sharing. God favor you.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Indeed, this made them think what different exercises are useful for those of us who wind up out and about or have restricted gear choices.immigration lawyer in orlando

    ReplyDelete
  12. There is a lot of betting on this post and I kind of like the content here. This article gives the light in which we can observe reality. The Turkish government provides electronic Turkey visa USA which is travel authorizations to United States citizens. It is for people who want to travel to Turkey without applying for a visa in advance and is different from a standard visa.

    ReplyDelete

  13. Great job for publishing such a beneficial web site. Your web log isn’t only useful but it is additionally really creative too.. lMany people ask for visa requirements for Turkey, You can read all Turkey entry requirements via our Turkey visa website.

    ReplyDelete
  14. If you run a business in this century you need to advertise it online. This is especially important these days because social media is a very important part of the growth of every business. For this purpose, if you are a Pakistani and need to grow your business globally you need to contact Netpurl and a Digital marketing agency . Their Social Media Marketing team helps you spread your business around the world through modern social media platforms.

    ReplyDelete
  15. If you are from the UK and worried about your children's studies, here is some great news. A private UK institute is providing tuition services related to all subjects. Fine Tutor provides the best 11 plus online tuition a to students. This not only teaches students but also prepares them with mock exams, so they can attend their final exam easily.

    ReplyDelete

  16. Dailyblogspot is an online platform striving to provide you with the best content about current affairs, sports, business, and everything you want.

    Dailyblogspot

    ReplyDelete
  17. It's amazing! Your way of explaining is superb. I would like to grab your attention towards our service which provides support services in marketing using the latest technology which helps you to grow. We are available all over the world. You can check the above link to see more details.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Dental management consultants Miami is a group of dental health care professionals who help dentists in the Miami area to improve their practices. The group provides information and resources on how to start and maintain a successful dental practice. They also offer advice on how to improve the quality of patient care and how to increase the profitability of a dental practice.

    ReplyDelete